Data collection and dissemination may present challenges to those working in the field. However, knowledge derived from its analysis and interpretation will provide the basis for crucial events at the management level, such as planning and program evaluation, policy development and advancement, and the overall advancement of the public health agenda at every level.

For this Assignment, you will analyze how public health data and definitions have changed over the past decade, and you will evaluate the consistency and reliability of this data.

Submit a 2- to 3-page analysis and your critique of the paper (not including title page, references, or tables). Include the following:

  • What data sources were used in this study?
  • Did the authors use secondary data or collected primary data?
  • What variables (dependent, independent, and covariates) were included?
  • What specific trend is being examined?
  • Did the authors find any specific trend? and if yes, what you can say about the future of this condition based on their trend analysis?
  • Define validity and reliability and explain if you have any concern about the reliability and validity of data used in this study.


  • Why Do Americans Have Shorter Life Expectancy and Worse Health Than Do People in Other High-Income Countries? By Mauricio Avendano and Ichiro Kawachi (2014) at
  • Shi, L., & Johnson, J. A. (Eds.). (2014). Novick & Morrow’s public health administration: Principles for population-based management (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
    • Chapter 15, “Public Health Surveillance”

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