Select the response that best completes the statement or answers the question.

eval 02 graphic1. Removing which structure would cause this plant to starve?

a. A

b. B

c. C
d. D

2. If a tree has 16 chromosomes in the gametophyte stage, how many chromosomes does it have in the sporophyte stage?

a. 4
b. 8

c. 16
d. 32

3. Which is the latest characteristic to appear in the evolutionary divergence of plants from green algae?

a. seeds
b. flowers

c. vascular tissue
d. embryo protection

4. An annual plant is an anthophyte that completes its life cycle in one year. Which of the following adaptations would you expect to find in an anthophyte with such a short life cycle?

a. deep roots
b. large leaves

c. many flowers
d. low growth

5. A plant that is characterized by steady vegetative growth the first year after germination, producing seeds early the next spring, and then dying, has which type of life cycle?

a. annual
b. biennial

c. vascular
d. perennial

6. The mobile reproductive parts of all nonvascular seedless plants are

a. rhizoids.
b. cones.

c. spores.
d. epiphytes.

7. Identify the correct descriptors of the flowering plants commonly called carrots.

a. biennial, eudicot, Anthophyta
b. perennial, eudicot, Ginkgophyta

c. annual, nonvascular, Bryophyta
d. perennial, eudicot, Lycophyta

8. Which category of life cycle is a plant that dies back to the junction between stem and root every year, and then regrows every subsequent season to bloom again?

a. gametophyte
b. haploid

c. conifer
d. perennial

9. Of the five divisions of vascular, seed-bearing plants, how many are gymnosperms?

a. two
b. three

c. four
d. five

10. Seeds without fruit are produced by plants in Division

a. Coniferophyta.
b. Lycophyta.

c. Anthophyta.
d. Pterophyta.

11. With regard to the alternation of generations, how are lycophytes, or club mosses, similar to the seed-bearing vascular plants?

a. They reproduce by mitosis.
b. In both, the sporophyte is dominant.

c. In both, the gametophyte is dominant.
d. Neither have alternation of generation life cycles.

12. The sporophytes of ferns are similar to those of seed-bearing plants in that both

a. are independent forms.
b. live inside cones.

c. are dependent on moisture.
d. produce spores.

13. A seedless vascular plant’s roots are analogous to which structures in a nonvascular plant?

a. cuticles
b. sporangia

c. stems
d. rhizoids

14. A stem with tiny leaf-like extensions usually consisting of a layer of cells only one cell thick is characteristic of which division of nonvascular plants?

a. bryophytes
b. hepaticophytes

c. pterophytes
d. anthocerophytes

15. You are given a nonvascular plant to identify as either a moss or a liverwort. Which characteristic is unique to only one, and can help you identify the plant?

a. grows on a log or along a stream
b. has unicellular rhizoids

c. absorbs and transports water by osmosis
d. grows close to the ground

16. Which of the following tissues would limit the rate of transpiration the most?

a. cuticle
b. phloem

c. trichomes
d. xylem

17. An experiment is designed to test the hypothesis that the rate of transpiration will increase with air humidity. According to what you have learned in this course, which of the following would be the most reasonable conclusion of the experiment?

a. The hypothesis is correct because high humidity would promote transpiration.
b. The hypothesis is incorrect because high humidity would most likely inhibit transpiration.

c. The hypothesis is correct because roots are able to absorb more moisture during humid weather.
d. The hypothesis is incorrect because there is no relationship between air humidity and transpiration.

18. Which of the following hormones does not affect plant growth?

a. auxin
b. cytokinins

c. ethylene
d. gibberellins

19. Evaluate the common expression, “One rotten apple spoils the whole barrel.”

a. The expression is true because all of the apples most likely came from the same tree.
b. The expression is false because one apple cannot affect the freshness of another apple.

c. The expression is false because cytokinins would protect the cellular integrity of the cells in the other apples.
d. The expression is true because a rotting apple gives off ethylene, which would speed the ripening of the other apples.

20. The stems of a plant growing out of the side of a cliff will grow upward due to

a. gravitropism.
b. photoperiodism.

c. phototropism.
d. thigmotropism.

21. Changes in the shapes of guard cells result in the opening and closing of stomata. Which of the following ideas would most likely explain how a guard cell can change its shape?

a. Heat causes the guard cell to expand or contract.
b. Water moving into and out of the guard cell causes it to swell or shrink.

c. The cuticle around the guard cell thickens when auxin binds with the cell’s hormone receptors.
d. Sugar crystals in the walls of the guard cells can move from a pentagonal shape to a hexagonal shape.

22. A scientist has invented a plant fertilizer that promotes the growth of collenchyma cells. What would be the most appropriate time for a gardener to use this fertilizer?

a. during the winter
b. when a plant is injured

c. when the plant is a seedling
d. if the plant loses too many leaves

23. When a person looks at an herbaceous plant, what type of cell is the person mostly seeing?

a. collenchyma cells
b. guard cells

c. parenchyma cells
d. sclerenchyma cells

24. Sagebrush grows in regions that receive little annual precipitation and has a main thick root. Which type of root structure would sagebrush most likely have?

a. prop root
b. fibrous

c. pneumatophores
d. taproot

25. The api-api putih shrub grows in swamps in western India. What type of root system does it most likely have

a. adventitious
b. fibrous

c. pneumatophores
d. taproot

26. Based on your knowledge of stem structure in a plant, why will removing the bark of a tree kill the tree?

a. Removing the bark removes phloem, preventing nutrient movement to the roots.
b. Removing the bark removes cambium and prevents further growth of the tree.

c. Removing the bark allows pathogens into the sensitive tissues beneath.
d. Removing the bark destroys the ability of the tree to draw water from the ground.

27. Which of the following cells is part of a plant’s dermal tissue?

a. ground cells and collenchyma cells
b. sieve-tube members and companion cells

c. tracheid cells and parenchyma cells
d. trichome cells and guard cells

28. The cells of the root cap produce a slimy substance to

a. attract water molecules.
b. soften up the soil around the root.

c. reduce friction between the growing root and the soil.
d. fixate nitrogen gas in the soil before it is absorbed by the roots.

29. A nursery manager wants to increase the rate of growth for the nursery’s seedlings. Which would be the best hormone to apply to the seedlings’ tissues?

a. auxin
b. cytokinins

c. ethylene
d. gibberellins

30. How does the spacing of the cells in the spongy mesophyll aid in a leaf’s function?

a. The loosely packed cells allow the leaf to be flexible so that the leaf can bend in the wind.
b. The tightly packed cells have a large surface area in which light energy can be collected.

c. The loosely packed cells allow ingredients used for photosynthesis to move readily through the leaf.
d. The tightly packed cells form a barrier from the exterior environment and protect the leaf from diseases and predators.

31. A bud appears on a tree in the spring. What type of tissue is the majority of the bud composed of?

a. dermal

b. ground

c. meristematic
d. vascular

32. What is the small, threadlike structure that can develop into a moss gametophyte plant called?

a. archegonium
b. protonema

c. rhizoids
d. spores

33. The prothallus is part of the life cycle of which group of plants?

a. angiosperms
b. conifers

c. ferns
d. mosses

34. Conifers produce two types of spores that develop into male or female gametophytes; because of this, what term is applied to conifers?

a. heterosporous
b. coniferous

c. incomplete
d. prothallus

35. Which of the following are formed by male cones?

a. megaspores
b. micropyles

c. microspores
d. prothallus

36. What is the underground stem that produces roots in a fern called?

a. archegonium
b. frond

c. prothallus
d. rhizome

37. What type of flower might have petals and stamens but no pistils?

a. complete
b. imperfect

c. heterosporous
d. perfect

38. Plants that thrive in tropical regions are most likely what type of plants?

a. day-neutral plants
b. intermediate-day plants

c. long-day plants
d. short-day plants

39. What is a plant that flowers regardless of the number of daylight hours called?

a. day-neutral plant
b. intermediate-day plant

c. long-day plant
d. short-day plant

40. The flowering response known as photoperiodism is triggered by the

a. number of sunny days each year.

b. number of daylight hours.

c. number of uninterrupted darkness hours.
d. number of hours the plant is exposed to UV light.

41. Certain flowers must be pollinated by insects that transfer pollen from the male flower to the female flower. What type of flowers are these?

a. perfect
b. dicot

c. imperfect
d. monocot

42. In anthophytes, which cell contains the egg and several nuclei?

a. female gametophyte
b. female sporophyte

c. male gametophyte
d. male sporophyte

43. When is a microspore a pollen grain?

a. when it is a female gametophyte
b. when it is a female sporophyte

c. when it is a male gametophyte
d. when it is a male sporophyte

44. Which term best describes fertilization in an anthophyte egg?

a. double fertilization
b. facilitated fertilization

c. natural fertilization
d. single fertilization

45. Strawberries are examples of what kind of fruit?

a. aggregate fruit
b. dry fruit

c. multiple fruit
d. simple fruit


Match the terms given with their definitions.


plants with specialized transport tissues

a. biennial
b. vascular
c. perennial
d. nonvascular
e. cotyledon

47. plants in which substances move slowly from cell to cell by osmosis and diffusion
48. seed structure that stores or helps absorb food for the tiny sporophyte
49. plant whose life spans two years
50. plant that can live for several years

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