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Image of a flowchart depicting the vertical descendant chart of a family over four generations. A couple has three sons, A, C, and D, and a daughter married to B. The first son A, displayed on the left hand side, had a daughter, who then had two sons, 1 and 2. The daughter married to B has a son, who also has a son (3). The second son, C, has two sons, the first son has one daughter (4) and a son (5), whereas the second son has one son (6). The third son, D, of the first generation has a son, who also has a son (7) of his own. Hence, there are seven grandchildren in all.

In this activity, you will answer questions about a Y-DNA scenario, which will analyze your understanding of the unique inheritance of the Y chromosome, and how Y-DNA is transmitted through a family tree.

Great-grandfather John Weaver, denoted by purple in the descendant chart provided, has taken a Y-STR DNA test. His results suggest that his Y-DNA haplogroup is R1b1a2a1c1a. You’ve identified all seven great-grandchildren of John Weaver and his wife, and numbered them 1 through 7.

Based on your understanding of Y-DNA and the descendant chart, answer the following questions:

  1. Based on the chart, which of John Weaver’s great-grandchildren trace their Y-DNA back to John?
  2. Individuals #3 and 6 each take a 111-marker Y-DNA test, and the genetic distance is 0. What could explain this result?
  3. Individuals #3, 5, 6, and 7 purchase 23andMe tests. According to the test results, the Y-DNA of individuals #3, 5, and 6 belong to haplogroup R1b. Individual #7 belongs to haplogroup J1c2a. What could explain this result

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